Развитие системы гласных иврита


автор: А. Юдицкий

Wednesday, 11 August 2004
Очень интересная, на мой взгляд, работа о принципах исторической фонетики иврита. К сожалению, автор не дал согласия на перевод статьи на русский язык, категорически потребовав разместить ее "as it is"

Вы можете связаться с автором статьи, отправив личное сообщение администрации портала.
Алекс Луговской

The Development of the Hebrew Vowel System According to the Principles of PHB

Alexey Yuditsky
(Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva)

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the vowel systems of Hebrew at 4 different time periods according to the principles of PHB.
The first period, Proto-Semitic, consisted of the traditional vowel triangle + phonemic length = 6 vowels: 3 long/3 short.
i ī u ū

a ā

First stage vowel shifts

In unstressed syllable
u->o, i->e (not nearby sibilant and y)
In syllable without strong stress
ay->ē, aw->ō
In strong stressed syllable
i->ē, u->ō, a->ā (not before double consonant)

As a result of this transitions the vowel system of the second period, 2nd Temple, based on Greek transcriptions of Hebrew found in Origen's Hexapla (~200 AD) consisted of the vowel triangle plus mid-vowels where i and u appeared only as "long vowels" (without short counterparts) while the mid and low vowels maintained vowel length as an opposed phonemic feature = 8 vowels: 5 long + 3 short (3 of which had long/short pairs)
ī ū
e ē o ō
a ā

Second stage vowel shifts

In all positions
ā->O, ī->i, ē->e, ō->o, ū->u
In close stressed syllable
e->a (sometimes ε nearby liquids)
In open stressed syllable
e->ε (or a nearby gutturals )
In close unstressed syllable
o->O (sometimes u nearby labials or before gemination)
In close never stressed syllable
e->i (sometimes ε nearby gutturals)
In close unstressed, but previously stressed syllable

The vowel system of the third period, Tiberian Hebrew 700 AD, consisted of the vowel triangle + 2 degrees of height (mid + low) without length as a phonemic feature = 7 vowels
i u
e o
ε O
Third stage vowel shifts
In all positions
ε ->e
In stressed or open unstressed syllable
O ->a
In close unstressed syllable
O ->o

Modern or Israeli Hebrew, the forth period, consists of the vowel triangle + 1 degree of height (mid) without length as a phonemic feature = 5 basic vowels

i u
E (e/ε) Å (o/O)


6 member system = triangle + symmetric/total length

8 member system = triangle + mid height + asymmetric length

7 member system = triangle + mid + low

5 member system = triangle + mid

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